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Pursuit of Revenge

Beyond the Postcolonial era I. Postcolonial societies experienced four stages in the relationship to the industrial European and Europeanized nations: the influence of Cold War rivalries on the new states, the economic effects of globalization, progress In the spread of the Ideals of civil society and participatory government, resurgence of cultural and religious traditions. 2. Latin America since 1945 I. Before WI Latin America was economically dependent on the US and western Europe II.

Migration Into the clues from the countryside created overcrowding and slums Inhabited by the poor Ill. Political events In Latin America led to the establishment of authoritarian governments of both the left and the right and to a retreat from the model of parliamentary democracy b. Revolutionary Challenges: Cuba, Chile, and Nicaragua l. The establishment of these governments provoked active resistance by the US II. Cuba 1 . Remained a colony of Spain until the Spanish-American War of 1898 2. On July 26, 1 953, Fidel Castro Rug attacked a government army barracks.

The recalculation pavement that Castro came to lead In exile took the name: Twenty- Sixth of July Movement 3. The US was hostile toward Castro and toward the presence of a communist state less than 100 miles from Floral 4. Some believe Castor’s death will cause a collapse of the government iii. Chile 1 . Latin America’s exemplar of parliamentary democracy 2. Chile was governed by a military Junta under General Augusto Pinochle. The military government pursued a close relationship with the US and resisted Marxism lb. Nicaragua 1 . Sandiness overthrew the corrupt dictatorship of the Somoza family In Nicaragua In 1979 2.

The US was hostile towards the Sandiness In fear of the spread of Marxist c. Pursuit of Stability under the Threat of Revolution: Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico I. Argentina 1 . General Leopold Saltier launched a disastrous invasion of the Sisal Mammalians 2. Argentina provided the most extensive example In Latin America of the restoration of democracy after military rule lie. Brazil 1. From 1964- 1985 Military assumed the direct government of Brazil 2. Major industrialized nation in Latin America 3. 2003, Luis Niacin Lull dad Silva became the first person from a working class aground to be elected president of Brazil iii.

Mexico 1 . Partied Recreational Institutional (PR’) held power for decades 2. The Mexican government maintained relations with Cuba and the other revolutionary regimes of Latin America, by resisted Marxist 3. President Carols Salinas favored free trade agreements: the most Important was the North American Free Trade Agreement (NONFAT), which created a free trade area in Mexico, Canada, and the US d. Continuity FIFO I. Each time there has been trouble, the governments have found themselves economically dependent on either the US or European governments and bankers 3.

Postcolonial Africa I. In WI the important roles that Africa was called on to play with its natural and human resources b. The Transition to Independence I. Leaders like Shame Markham, Com Kenya, Julius Anywhere, and Patrice Lumbar became symbols of African self-determination and independence it. Violence was more likely in colonies with large populations of European settlers or exports of minerals or other resources c. Striving for Stability and Civil Society: Nigeria, South Africa, Congo, and Rwanda I. Nigeria 1 .

Modern Republic of Nigeria is the most populous state in Africa 2. In 1960 the most powerful and potentially successful state in independent Africa 3. 1966 coup d’etat brought a military government into power 4. Military rule was replaced in 1999 by civilian government under an elected president, Ligneous Bassoon I’. South Africa 1. South Africa was governed under the racist policy of apartheid 2. In sass and sass the government created three tiny independent homelands for blacks so that they could be treated as immigrant foreigners in parts of South Africa 3. 1990 president F. W. E Clerk began a series of landmark actions: lifting ban of the African National Congress (NC), the main anti-apartheid organization; releasing NC leader Nelson Mandela after 27 years of imprisonment; and repealing the Separate Amenities Act 4. Nelson Mandela was elected president of what Tutu called the Rainbow Nation 5. Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRY) was a quasi-Judicial body that investigated apartheid-era human rights abuses iii. Congo 1 . The Republic of Congo gained independence on June 30, 1960 with Patrice Lumbar as prime minister and Joseph Cassavas as president 2.

Joseph Desire Mob overthrew them both iv. Rwanda 1. Ethnicity in Rwanda-Round was determined by wealth 2. The wealth were called the Tutsis and the rest were called Hut 3. In 2008 Rwanda became the first country with a majority of women elected to its legislature d. The African Future I. Health and Environment 1 . HIVE/AIDS was spreading through Africa 2. The World Health Organization declared the prevalence of tuberculosis and emergency in Africa in 2005 ii. Social Change 1. Migrants flock to cities in search of wage labor 2. Men were more likely to migrate to urban areas .

Women were active in antinational and anti-apartheid movements and took leadership roles in post-independence rebellions iii. Trade and Development 1 . Trade has been emphasized as the best mechanism for improving African economies and standards of living 4. The Islamic Heartlands from North Africa to Indonesia a. Turkey I. Product of a modernist republican experiment that has attempted to create a military, ethnicity, culture, and religion b. Iran and its Islamic Revolution I. Iran was ruled as a monarch from 1925 to 1941 by a former army commander, Raze Khan it.

Raze Shah built a highly centralized autocracy iii. The llama preferred continuing nonviolent opposition through the sass ‘v. In 1978 religious leaders and secularist revolutionaries Joined forces to end the shah’s long regime through a revolution engaging a wide spectrum of emotion, ideology, and secular v. Mohammad Chatham was elected president in 1997 in the first real national leadership election since the 1979 revolution c. Afghanistan and the Former Soviet Republics I. Arab states saw the Afghan Was as an opportunity both to resist the expansion of

Soviet influence and to divert the energies of their own religious extremists lie. The US saw the Afghan War as another round in the Cold War iii. In 1988 extreme rigorists Muslims the Taliban seized control ‘v. The Taliban allowed Muslim terrorist groups such as al-Qaeda to establish training camps in Afghanistan d. India I. Charlatan Nehru developed Indian’s famous theory of political neutrality visit-Г-visit world alignments it. P. V. Maharanis Pap was asked to form a government when no party won the subsequent national vote iii. Separatist movements have pulled at the unity of the Indian state lb.

As the world’s largest functioning democracy, India is an important model of representative government and pluralistic society if it succeeds in staying together and reducing its harshest problems: overpopulation and mass poverty e. Pakistan and Bangladesh I. The first president Muhammad All Zinnia oversaw the creation of a Muslim state comprising the widely separated East and West Pakistan in the two predominantly Muslim areas of northwest India and East Bengal I’. Binary Bout became the first female leader of a major Islamic state f.

Indonesia and Malaysia I. Indonesia was created in 1949 as a republic it. Malay received its independence from British colonial rule in 1957 as a federation iii. Both Indonesia and Malaysia have rich cultural traditions and natural resources 5. The Postcolonial Middle East a. Postcolonial Arab Nations in the Middle East I. The countries shared the classical Arabic written language but the spoken colloquial language varies it. Nationalism in the basic sense of ‘patriotism to the homeland’ remains the most important ideology from Morocco to India iii. The

Egyptian government attempted to play different Islamic militant and professional groups off against one another b. The Arab-Israeli Conflict I. Under the Ottomans, the Holy Land had been the home of Arabic-speaking Palestinians I’. Immigration of Jews came largely from eastern Europe iii. The Zionist movement received a boost from Jews worldwide who felt a need for a homeland iv. The UN called for partition of the mandate territory into a Jewish and an Arab state v. In 1948 Jews in Palestine proclaimed the independent state of Israel v’. The Palestinian Authority was created by the 1993 peace agreement c.

Middle Eastern Oil I. The oil wealth of the Arab and Iranian world has been both a blessing and a curse for the people and countries of the Middle East it. It did not necessarily bring political Rise of Militant Salamis I. Increase in the importance of oil-producing states of the Middle East has coincided with movement and the revival of pristine Muslim values e. Iraq: Intervention and occupation I. It remains difficult to ensure peace and stability in Iraq I’. The complete failure to find weapons of mass destruction in Iraq let to wide questioning of the real rationale for the war